2018 Issue 4


Inż. Ap. Chem. (Chemical Engineering and Equipment) 2018, 57, issue 4

Table of Contents


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Scientific papers:


M. CUDAK: Hold-up for gas-liquid system in an agitated vessel with two impellers
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2018, 57, 4, 93-94
Studies of different parameters influence (gas flow rate, impeller speed, sucrose concentration in aqueous solution and configuration of impellers) on the gas hold-up for gas-liquid systems are presented in the paper. Measurements were conducted in a vessel of diameter equal to 0.288 m, equipped with two high-speed impellers. The results of experiments were described by the equation. The study shows that gas hold-up strongly depends on the gas flow rate and sucrose concentration in aqueous solution.
Keywords: mixing, gas hold-up, gas-liquid system, high-speed impeller




D. JANECKI, G. BARTELMUS: Analysis of modelling of a three-phase fixed bed reactor using CFD procedures
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2018, 57, 4, 95-96
The paper presents issues connected with the use of Eulerian multiphase model for modelling a three-phase fixed-bed reactor (TBR). Parameters calculated on the basis of available in literature data were selected, and next the analysis of model sensitivity to the change of selected parameters was carried out. The influence of changes of relationships describing the interaction forces between phases and the change of radial porosity of packing on the results of numerical calculations was analyzed.
Keywords: trickle-bed reactor, CFD model, hydrodynamics, multiphase flow




A. KIEŁBUS-RĄPAŁA: Conditions of production of gas-liquid-floating particles system in an agitated vessel
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2018, 57, 4, 97-98
The aim of this work was to analyze the conditions for producing a liquid-gas-floating particles mixture in the agitated vessel of inner diameter 0.288 m, equipped with two agitators on a common shaft. Rotational speed values of nL, nCD and nJD were determined, thanks to which three characteristic flow structures of three-phase mixture were obtained. The effect of solid particles concentration X and gas flow rate Vg on a value of n was determined. Gas hold-up in the system increased with the increase of Vg, and its value depended on X and a type of continuous phase.
Keywords: agitation, three-phase system, floating particles




M. KOTOWICZ, M. JASIŃSKA, J. BAŁDYGA: Energetic efficiency of mixing and mass transfer in single phase and two phase liquid systems
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2018, 57, 4, 99-101
A new model for energetic efficiency of mixing has been proposed. Experimental investigations carried out in single phase and two-phase liquid systems were based on application of mixing sensitive test reactions. Reactions were performed in rotor stator-mixers. Product distribution and energetic efficiency of turbulent mixing and mass transfer were identified. The results show that energetic efficiency of turbulent mixing decreases with increasing power input for both systems in agreement with theory. Results help to formulate rules for better performance of rotor-stator reactors.
Keywords: energetic efficiency, mixing, test reactions, rotor-stator




Ł. MAKOWSKI, E. WYSZOMIERSKA, P. GROCHO-WIECKI: Modelling of the filling process using computational fluid mechanics
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2018, 57, 4, 102-103
The aim of this work is to simulate the process of filling containers with foaming liquids with different rheological properties and to determine the effect of these properties on the volume fraction of air in the liquid. It has been shown that, as predicted, viscosity and surface tension of the fluid have the greatest influence, The lower the surface tension, the greater the number of air bubbles during the filling process, For viscous liquids the process is different – the air retained in the liquid during the process disappears much slower than when pouring low viscosity liquids.
Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, multiphase flow, fluid dosing, foam




M. MARKOWSKA, S. WŁODARCZAK, M. MATUSZAK, A. KRUPIŃSKA, M. OCHOWIAK: Influence of baffle location inside a tank on the efficiency of liquid stream purification in a modified swirl settling tank
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2018, 57, 4, 104-105
The influence of modification of swirl settling tank construction element on the liquid stream purification efficiency from heavy fraction impurities is presented in the paper. The settling tank design was characterized by presence of baffle located in the tank axis. The baffle height was changed. The dependencies of settling tank efficiency and liquid damming on the hydraulic load were analyzed. A baffle arrangement influence on the flow resistance and purification process effectiveness is shown. The lowest value of flow resistance was assigned to a swirl settling tank with the baffle located in the highest level among all tested. The design with a baffle located between the tank
entrance and exit was characterized with the highest efficiency of liquid purification.
Keywords: swirl separation tank, swirl settling tank, solid-liquid separation, baffle, purifying efficiency




A. MARKOWSKA-RADOMSKA, E. DŁUSKA, A. METERA: Multiple emulsions – multiphase carriers of nutraceuticals in functional food
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2018, 57, 4, 106-107
The multiphase structured pH sensitive carriers in a form of double and triple emulsions with co-encapsulated bioactive ingredients (soybean oil and Rhodamine B – analog of vitamin E) of prophylactic significance in civilization diseases were developed and produced. The release of Rhodamine B from double emulsions was studied under conditions simulating the environment of oral cavity, esophagus and stomach (pH: 7, 5 and 2). The obtained results are promising in perspective of using emulsion structures for co-encapsulation, co-delivery and co-release of several nutraceuticals.
Keywords: multiple emulsion, functional food, nutraceuticals, Couette-Taylor flow contactor




P.T. MITKOWSKI, W. SZAFERSKI, J. PIOTROWSKA, A. MIELHORSKA, M. JEZIERSKA, A. PERZ, S. KUŚWIK: Production of cosmetic emulsion base in SEM-type mechanical mixers
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2018, 57, 4, 108-109
The influence of number of sieves through which the cosmetic emulsion base was produced on a droplet size was analyzed. The single-sieve system with two different mesh sizes was also analyzed, aiming to find the relationship between mass flow rate of peristaltic pump and droplet diameters of dispersed phase. The use of SEM-type mixers positively influences emulsion properties and enables one to obtain fine droplets and mono-disperse emulsion which are advantage features in cosmetic emulsions.
Keywords: SEM-type mixer, preparation of cosmetic emulsions




M. OCHOWIAK, S. WŁODARCZAK, M. MATUSZAK, M. MARKOWSKA, A. KRUPIŃSKA: Characteristics of oil-water emulsions stabilized by Roksol EMB-2
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2018, 57, 4, 110-111
The effect of emulsifier concentration on droplet sizes, rheological properties and emulsions stability is shown in the paper. It was proved that emulsion viscosity increases with the increase of emulsifier concentration. The droplet diameters of dispersed phase decrease with the increase of emulsifier concentration. The emulsion structure depends on oil viscosity. The emulsion viscosity, emulsion structure and droplet sizes affect the emulsion stability.
Keywords: oil-water emulsion, emulsifier concentration, emulsion stability, diameters of droplets




K. PEPLIŃSKI: Application of ANSYS-Polyflow software to aid the production of bottles with a handhold by extrusion blow molding process
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2018, 57, 4, 112-113
An exemplary application of this type of software for final PE-HD packing thickness distribution and for analysis of its mass is presented in the paper. The influence of SFRD-type optimization technique on features studied was also assessed. Numerical studies carried out for assumed assumptions allowed to obtain a product with useful features, according to the adopted criteria: minimum mass and wall thickness greater than 0.0001 m. The ANSYS-Polyflow software is the recommended tool to be used in design and manufacture of extrusion blow molded products.
Keywords: extrusion blow molding, SFRD, bottle with handhold, simulation, ANSYS-Polyflow




G. PROBOLA, J. WARECHOWSKI, E. HAPONIUK: Flow characteristics of tomato puree with the addition of large particles of various geometries
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2018, 57, 4, 114-115
The purpose of this work was to characterize the flow characteristics of model food suspension systems containing the addition of large solid particles, differing in composition and geometry. The consistency measurements were carried out using Bostwick and gutter consistometers, as well as measurements with the ball measuring system and vane impeller. It was found that tomato paste with rice particles showed greater apparent viscosity than puree with poppy seeds and sesame, and in the case of pasta the smallest increase of puree viscosity resulted in the addition of the shortest threads.
Keywords: viscosity, coarse particles, Bostwick consistometer, ball measuring system, vane impeller




J. RÓŻAŃSKI, A. KUCZORA: Homogenization of o/w emulsion during the flow through a packed bed of silicon carbide microparticles
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2018, 57, 4, 116-117
The results of study on the flow of diluted o/w emulsions through packed beds of silicon carbide microparticles (71÷100 μm) are reported. The mineral oil as dispersed phase (5 vol% and 15 vol%) and Tween 40 as emulsifier were used. The emulsions pressed through the packed bed contained smaller oil droplets and were more uniform than the preliminary emulsion. The packed bed used in the study caused mainly the disappearance of droplets with diameters greater than 30 mm. A strong effect of emulsion concentration on pressure drop was also observed.
Keywords: emulsion, drop break-up, packed bed, homogenization, silicon carbide




A. SZYDŁOWSKA, J. HAPANOWICZ: Influence of the presence of metal foam in a pipe on hydrodynamics of two-phase gas-liquid system flow
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2018, 57, 4, 118-119
Measurements results related to the hydrodynamics of gas-liquid system flow are presented. During the research, the pressure drop of air-water system flow through a pipe section filled with metal foams was measured. The obtained results were compared with pressure drop values calculated according to commonly recognized models for two-phase flow through an empty pipe as well as models relating to two-phase flow through porous media. The analysis of measured and calculated pressure drop values led to the assessment of influence of metal foam presence in a pipe on two-phase flow hydrodynamics.
Keywords: metal foam, two-phase flow, gas-liquid system, pressure drop




G. WAŁOWSKI: Evaluation of multi-phase flow hydrodynamics in a monosubstrate reactor with the adhesive bed using immobilization of methanogenic microorganisms
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2018, 57, 4, 120-121
The methods and techniques used in immobilization of methanogenic microorganisms are reviewed. The premise for paper development is the issue of adoption of microorganisms for gas production for a pilot plant using an adhesive bed placed inside a monosubstrate reactor for pig slurry. The technical-processing aspects of biogas technology for the developed and operated system in the preparation of monosubstrate, production and purification of raw biogas, cogeneration and post-fermentation treatment are also indicated.
Keywords: hydrodynamics, reactor, adhesive bed, immobilization




M. WOJTALIK, Ł. MAKOWSKI: Experimental research on the impact of collision reactor geometry on the formation of MoS2 nanocrystals
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2018, 57, 4, 122-123
The impact of turbulent jet reactors geometry on molibden disulphide synthesis is presented in the paper. Precipitation process was carried out in the wet chemical synthesis using ammonium heptamolibdate and ammonium sulphide with citric acid as catalyst in order to obtain MoS2 nanoparticles. Two types of impinging jet reactors were used. It was shown that the particles have tendency to aggregate and the correlation between the average diameter and time was found. The impact of temperature on aggregation process was also determined.
Keywords: molibden disulphide, impinging jet reactors, mixing