2017 Issue 6


Inż. Ap. Chem. (Chemical Engineering and Equipment) 2017, 56, issue 6

Table of Contents


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Scientific papers:


J. DIAKUN: Possibility of activation of mechanical interaction in the CIP washing process
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 6, 193-195
This work presents an analytically-conceptual character. On the basis of literature survey, our own research and industrial process observation, CIP cleaning conditions of industrial lines were analyzed. The aim of this study was to identify limitations of this washing method, energy and environmental effects and the possibility of activating CIP washing using hybrid methods such as ultrasonic cavitation, bubbling, foam and inserts-flow caps.
Keywords: CIP, Sinner's circle, bubbling, ultrasounds, foam




S. FILLINGER, J. TALAGA, M. DYLAG, J.-U. REPKE, G. WOZNY: Automatic equipment design for modular process units
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 6, 196-197                   Get the full text (in English)
Ensuring an adequate time-to-market at lowest possible cost and time requirements is of major importance for the economic success in chemical and process engineering. This contribution presents an approach for an automatic constructive design of plant modules with a high level of details including equipment, close and internal piping, instrumentation, and steelwork. A prototypical implementation was successfully realized within the PlantDesign feature of MOSAICmodeling simulation and modelling environment.
Keywords: modular plant design, MOSAICmodeling, automatic equipment design, 3D plant design, Computer-Aided Engineering




N. IDASZEWSKA, K. BIEŃCZAK, G. SZYMAŃSKI, E. JANEBA-BARTOSZEWICZ: Effect of mechanical vibrations during transportation on physical and chemical parameters of tomatoes
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 6, 198-199
The effect of mechanical vibrations on physical and chemical parameters of tomatoes, connected with their maturation process is analyzed. Firstly, vibrations occurring during real road transportation were measured. Then, a vibration simulator was constructed enabling the measurement of physicochemical parameters’ changes in tomatoes under the influence of selected vibration frequencies. The research results allowed one to determine the levels of vibration frequency and time which leads to the highest values of tested parameters (pH, total soluble solids) and the lowest firmness.
Keywords: transportation, vibrations, tomatoes




M. KABZIŃSKI, K. NEUPAUER, P. PTASZEK: Investigation of rheological properties of carboxymethyl cellulose, xanthan gum and guar gum using a screw stirrer in the tube
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 6, 200-201
The paper presents investigation of rheological parameters of hydrocolloid water solutions, determined during mixing with a screw stirrer in the tube. Carboxymethyl cellulose, xanthan gum and guar gum were used as model fluid solutions. The experiments were conducted in 12-liter volume vessel, for the increase and decrease of agitator rotational speed. Values of shear rate, shear stress, Reynolds and Newton numbers were determined. In the description of rheological character of the solutions the Ostwald-de Waele equation was used. The experiments revealed non-linear dependencies between shear stress, shear rate and time, characterizing investigated hydrocolloids.
Keywords: screw stirrer, hydrocolloids, mixer-type rheometry




P. KAZIMIERSKI, I. WARDACH-ŚWIĘCICKA, P. TIUTIURSKI, D. KARDAŚ: Pyrolysis analysis of a single wood particle
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 6, 202-204
Pyrolysis process of a single wood particle is described in the paper. Thermogravimetric and radiography techniques and pyrolysis in a high-temperature kiln were applied in the experiments. The thermal decomposition rate as a function of time was analyzed. Pine cubes with a side of 18 mm were used as samples. High-temperature kiln tests were preceded by thermogravimetric analysis aiming to determine temperature ranges in which the process took place. The samples after tests were analyzed using radiographic methods to visualize the changes in wood density as a function of time. It was observed on the photographs that pyrolysis started from sample corners, while only a core in the center of samples remained unchanged. Radiography experiments have a big potential in pyrolysis research.
Keywords: pyrolysis, radiography, thermogravimetric analysis




D. KONDEJ, T.R. SOSNOWSKI: Influence of different multiwalled carbon nano-tubes (MWCNTs) on deformable phospholipid film on aqueous surface
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 6, 205-207
Experimental investigations of MWCNTs influence on dynamic surface-active properties of phospholipid monolayer used as a functional model of lung surfactant at air-water interface are presented. Modification of mechanical properties of the interface was detected in a form of surface compressibility changes. The observed effects are dependent on MWCNTs concentration and their properties (including wettability and specific surface area). The particular relationship between surface rheological parameters and particle concentration was detected suggesting the effect of carbon nanotubes aggregation at a certain concentration level.
Keywords: carbon nanotubes, lung surfactant, inhalation, interfacial effects




W. KRUSZELNICKA: Analysis of indicators used for grinding assessment
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 6, 208-210
The utility characteristics of comminution process are presented. The most important indexes of multi-disk efficiency were surveyed for the description of intelligent monitoring system of the process. The indicators were classified according to the efficiency, environment and product. It was stated that models of grinding process evaluation should take into account the relationship between energy in the input, energy losses
and energy in the output, taking into account the mechanical aspects of grinding and relationships between the machine and environment.
Keywords: grinding, granular biomass, energy efficiency




W. KRUSZELNICKA, P. BAŁDOWSKA, J. FLIZIKOWSKI, A. TOMPOROWSKI, R. KASNER: Energy balance of combustion process of post-consumer polymeric plastics
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 6, 211-212
The aim of this work was to analyze and assess the possibilities of using post-consumer polypropylene for energy purposes (incineration) based on a universal indicator of energy efficiency assessment. Energy resources and inputs, necessary to obtain them for considered material, were analyzed. It was found that energy expenditure on the generation, transportation, use and management of waste exceed the energy benefits obtained in polypropylene combustion process.
Keywords: polypropylene, energy efficiency, plastic waste recycling, energy recycling




J. MUSIAŁ, R, POLASIK, T. KAŁACZYŃSKI, M. SZCZUTKOWSKI: Evaluation of cooperating rolling kinematic pairs on the base of linear wear
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 6, 213-214
The objective of presented research was to determine and mathematically describe the changes of operating features of kinematic rolling pairs such as linear wear during their service in the initial period of usage. The obtained research results indicate that linear wear is a crucial factor during service. The presented mathematical relationships between linear wear and service time period as well as the geometrical structure parameter can be used as a prediction tool to identify changes appearing in ball bearings.
Keywords: external surface, linear wear, ball bearing, roughnes




M. OCHOWIAK, A. KRUPIŃSKA, S. WŁODARCZAK, M. MATUSZAK, T. SZULC: The study of two-phase flow in conical swirl atomizers
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 6, 215-216
The results of experimental study on two-phase flow resistance for swirl atomizers with two inlet ports are presented. The effect of height and diameter of the mixing chamber on a value of discharge coefficient and the effect of atomizer design and operating parameters on the size of droplets and their size distribution were determined. The equation for the prediction of discharge coefficient values is also proposed.
Keywords: conical swirl atomizer, atomizer construction, discharge coefficient, droplets




R. POLASIK, J. MUSIAŁ, T. KAŁACZYŃSKI, R. KOCHAŃSKI: Mass index of geometric structure change of the surface of objects made of aluminum alloy 7075 after machining
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 6, 217-218
The analysis results regarding the use of original mass index of geometric structure changes of surface after abrasive machining are presented and discussed. Strong correlations were obtained between the values of analyzed surface roughness parameters and the mass loss factor related to the unit area of machined material. The mass distribution before machining was determined. Ultrasonic cleaning was applied to remove machining products (burrs). A statistical analysis of the obtained test results was performed. The possibility of using original factor to determine the process effects or to verify the process state was indicated.
Keywords: abrasive machining, ultrasonic cleaning, surface roughness, mass index/factor




J. SZYMKÓW, M. MARKUSZEWSKI: Investigation of granulation process of sewage sludge with basalt dust
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 6, 219-221
The aim of this study was to investigate sewage sludge granulation process with basalt dust in a drum granulator. The investigation were carried out at a different additive of basalt dust content equal to 35, 40, 45, 50 and 55% of sample weigh and at different rotation frequency of drum granulator equal to 33, 55, 76, 119 and 141 rpm. The granulation process was evaluated on the basis of granulometric analysis of particles.
Keywords: sewage sludge, granulation, basalt dust




T. WYLECIAŁ, D. URBANIAK, M. ZAJEMSKA, J. BORYCA: Research of bulk material granularity influence on the fluidized pneumatic sluice efficiency
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 6, 222-223
The influence of grain size of material dispensed with a fluidized airlock on its effectiveness was investigated. Therefore the possibility  of  using  such lock  as a dispensing device was considered. Quartz sand with a granularity of 300, 600 and 1000 μm was used in tests. For air flow rate of 9.3 m3/h flow time through the sluice increased with the increase of grain size whereas the shorter discharge time was observed for 12 m3/h.
Keywords: granular material, fluidization, fluidized pneumatic sluice, particle size distribution




A. ZALEWSKA, J. KOWALIK: Tin coating as protection in foodstuff metal packaging
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 6, 224-225
A quality of tin coating in metal cans was tested. The cans of food products such as fish, peaches, pineapple and animal feed were studied. Microscopic tests were conducted using an optical microscope. A surface topography of the sample was determined using a confocal microscope. The tin corrosion of pineapple and animal feed cans was observed.
Keywords: food packaging, metal cans, tin-plated metal sheet