2017 Issue 4


Inż. Ap. Chem. (Chemical Engineering and Equipment) 2017, 56, issue 4

Table of Contents


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Scientific papers:


K. DOBROWOLSKA, T.R. SOSNOWSKI: Surface compressibility of air-water interface containing DPPC and multiwalled carbon nanotubes
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 114-115
Influence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MCWNTs) on the surface-active properties of phospholipid monolayer (DPPC) at the air − water interface were investigated. The studied system, based on the Langmuir-Wilhelmy film balance, provides a basic physicochemical model of the lung surfactant and allows one to investigate the dynamic interfacial effects. The surface compressibility of DPPC monolayer contaminated with hydrophobic or hydrophilic (oxidized) MWCNTs was altered already at low concentration of nanoparticles in the range of 10‑3÷10-2 mg/(cm3 of liquid). Observed effects are probably due to modified intermolecular inter-actions at the interface, and − if happen in vivo − may influence the mass transfer properties in the pulmonary region of the respiratory system. It is concluded that breathing with air contaminated by aerosolized carbon nanotubes may be not safe because of a potential influence of this nanomaterial on the dynamic surface activity of the lung surfactant.
Keywords: lung surfactant, nanomaterials, dynamic surface tension, gas − liquid interface




D. DOWNAROWICZ, E. GABRUŚ: Evaluation of activated carbon regeneration using the direct resistance method
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 116-117
The electrothermal regeneration efficiency of two types of activated carbons Sorbonorit 4 (S4) and Sorbonorit B4 (SB4) was evaluated. They were used in the removal of propan-2-ol (IPA) vapour from air. It was found that the SB4 carbon had the higher resistivity than S4 which affected the electrothermal process efficiency. The increase in temperature and electrical voltage affected the increase in the recovery efficiency of alcohol vapour. The energy consumption in the desorption process was 5-6 times greater than the adsorption isosteric heat.
Keywords: regeneration, Joule heat, resistivity, activated carbon




I. GRUBECKI: Prediction of hydrogen peroxide decomposition course in a tubular reactor packed with Terminox Ultra catalase. Part II. Plug flow case
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 118-119
The behavior of isothermal plug flow reactor performing hydrogen peroxide decomposition by immobilized Terminox Ultra catalase is studied. A model was based on kinetic, hydrodynamic and mass transfer parameters previously obtained for the analyzed process. The average H2O2 conversion at the bioreactor outlet was calculated for various temperatures and feed flow rates. The diffusive resistance was taken into account. It was shown that in the process under considerations the external diffusive resistance should not be ignored  compared to  internal one  and  the global effectiveness factor should be employed. Furthermore, it was shown that in all cases the feed flow rate and process temperature maximizing the average hydrogen peroxide conversion at the bioreactor outlet can be indicated.
Keywords: hydrogen peroxide decomposition, immobilized Terminox Ultra catalase, packed-bed reactor, plug flow reactor




K. JABŁCZYŃSKA, J.M. GAC, T.R. SOSNOWSKI: Modeling and experimental analysis of particles aggregates formation during the evaporation of monodisperse colloid droplet
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 120-121
The paper presents results of investigation of the internal structure of organized aggregates which are formed by means of spray drying of a colloidal suspension of monodisperse spherical particles. This structure was investigated both experimentally and numerically. It has been shown that, depending on the drying conditions – especially evaporation rate – particles may aggregate into very diverse structures with a different degree of ordering.
Keywords: structural particles, spray drying, droplet evaporation modeling, particles aggregates




K. KOSOWSKA, M. HENCZKA: Research into application of composite foams fabricated via foaming of supercritical liquids in biomedical engineering
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 122-123
The aim of this work is the investigation into production of porous structures from composite materials based on poly(ε-caprolactone) supplemented with hydroxyapatite by supercritical foaming process using scCO2. The analysis of obtained porous structures’ properties using specialized analytical me-thods was performed. The obtained porous structures were characterized by the pore size in a range from 5 to 280 μm and porosity between 78 and 89%. These results ensured that obtained foams are suitable for potential applications in bone tissue engineering.
Keywords: composite structures, foaming process, supercritical fluids, poly(ε-caprolactone




K. KUPIEC, K. STYSZKO: Research on the rate of biocides leaching from porous building materials
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 124-125
The paper deals with leaching process of biocides added to façade materials by water wetting the external surface of these materials. A mathematical model dealing with the release of biocides contained in building materials into the environment allows one to estimate released streams of harmful substances. The solid diffusion coefficients for three biocides types in acrylate and silicone resin-based renders were determined.
Keywords: leaching, biocides, diffusion, façade material




Ł. MAKOWSKI, K. WOJTAS, M. WOJTALIK: Production of crystals with desired properties in jets reactors – experimental studies and CFD modeling
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 126-127
Influence of process parameters on precipitation process in jet reactors is presented in the paper. Two processes were consi-dered: test, barium sulphate crystallization and production
of molybdenum disulfide crystals of practical character. The experimental results were compared with simulations using computational fluid mechanics especially large eddy simulation models.
Keywords: precipitation, molybdenum disulphide, large eddy simulation




A. MARKOWSKA-RADOMSKA, E. DŁUSKA, G. ZAKRZEWSKA-KOŁTUNIEWICZ, A. MIŚKIEWICZ: Recovery of rare earth metals from solution after leaching of permanent magnets in an integrated process using emulsion liquid membranes
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 128-129
A concept of separation of metal ions of neodymium and dysprosium by emulsion liquid membranes-ELMs using a Couette-Taylor flow reactor (CTF) as an integrated process combining the creation of emulsion liquid membranes and extraction of Nd3+ and Dy3+ from neodymium-iron-boron  leaching  solutions is  demonstrated. The use of CTF reactor reduces the number of operating process units and enables a continuous extraction with the low consumption of solvents and carriers. Conditions for the preparation of stable ELMs (D2EHPA as a carrier) with composition and structures suitable for a study on Nd3+ and Dy3+ separation were developed.
Keywords: rare earth metals, emulsion liquid membranes, extraction, Couette-Taylor flow reactor




U. MICHALCZUK, A. PENCONEK, A. MOSKAL: Rheological properties of selected body fluids. Part I. Models of biological fluids
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 130-131
This paper comprises a literature survey of artificial substitution models of biological fluids and a comparison of their rheological properties to rheological properties of body fluids. The study included the preparation of biological fluid models and the determination of basic rheological parameters (flow curve and viscosity dependence of shear stress) at temperatures of 22, 36.6 and 40°C. The model measured values fall within a range of values observed for natural biological fluids. Artificial fluids show the same flow characteristics as biological ones.
Keywords: body fluids, rheology, flow curves




M. OCHOWIAK, M. MATUSZAK, S. WŁODARCZAK, M. ANCUKIEWICZ, A. KRUPIŃSKA: Evaluation of the work of modified swirl sedimentation tank for purification of rainwater stream contaminated by light fraction
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 132-133
In the paper a modified construction of swirl sedimentation tank for separation of light fraction from water is proposed. The classical swirl sedimentation tank was equipped with the additional inner cylinder splitting the separation and outlet oil zones. The aim of construction modification was to enable the retention of light fraction in the tank in comparison with the classical swirl sedimentation tank which function is to separate only heavy fraction. The liquid damming and tank efficiency as a dependence on the contaminated liquid flow rate were evaluated.
Keywords: modified swirl sedimentation tank, liquid purification, light fraction, liquid damming, efficiency




M. ODZIOMEK, Ł. KWIATKOWSKI, T.R. SOSNOWSKI: Determination of formation conditions’ influence on physicochemical properties of electronic cigarettes aerosols
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 134-135
The aim of this work was to investigate the processes responsible for generation and properties of aerosols released from electronic cigarettes. Based on the laser diffraction method the primary parameters of droplet size distribution of aerosols released from four e-cigarette models with different internal aerodynamic resistance were determined. Aerosols were generated at physiological flow rates from e-liquids with different composition and properties. It was stated that the quality of aerosol depends mainly on device construction but it is also related to e-liquid composition and properties.
Keywords: aerosol, e-cigarettes, droplet size distribution, evaporation, condensation




M. PILAREK, P. SOBIESZUK, K. WIERZCHOWSKI, K. DĄBKOWSKA: Applicability of a single-use bioreactor with wave-induced agitation in oxygen-dependent bio-processes
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 136-137
Intensification of liquid phase oxygenation in a single-use bioreactor with wave-induced mixing, i.e. ReadyToProcess WAVE™25 system equipped with 2 dm3 culture bag has been discussed. Two groups of process factors influencing on oxygenation effectiveness have been recognized: parameters related to gas and liquid phases, and parameters related to the wave induced inside the culture bag. The O2-water thermodynamic equilibrium has been obtained for all studied variants of oxygenation process. The applicability of the WAVE™25 system in oxygen-dependent bioprocesses has been confirmed.
Keywords: bioreactor with wave-induced agitation, single-use technology, intensification of oxygenation




K. PRAJWOWSKI, W. GOŁĘBIEWSKI, M. KORDAS, R. RAKOCZY: Effect of ozone addition on quality of exhaust gases of compression-ignition engine
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 138-139
The aim of this paper is to present the results obtained for the compression-ignition unit (Fiat 1,3 JTD 16V MULTIJET). The primary objective of this work was to determine the effect of ozone on exhaust gas toxicity. A significant increase in the reduction of exhaust gas toxicity was observed.
Keywords: compression-ignition engine, exhaust gas toxicity, ozone




R. RAKOCZY, M. KORDAS: Dynamical modeling of wastewater treatment plant
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 140-141
The paper is an attempt to apply the statistical identification technique in the description of functioning sewage treatment plant. Based on the recorded chloride ions concentration in the inlet and outlet of wastewater treatment plant, the mathematical model of the plant was developed and impulse characteristics were determined.
Keywords: mathematical modeling, correlation technique, wastewater treatment plant




P. SOBIESZUK, M. PILAREK, K. WIERZCHOWSKI, K. DĄBKOWSKA: Investigation of oxygen absorption rate in a bioreactor with wave-induced mixing
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 142-143
The results of measurements of O2 absorption rate from the N2/O2 gas mixture in H2O in a bioreactor with wave-induced mixing are presented. The aim of this work was to identify the factors influencing on the rate of O2 transport to the liquid phase. The results show that the rate of O2 absorption in H2O increases with the increase of operating parameters values: angle and frequency of oscillations of the platform, gas flow rate, liquid volume, and O2 partial pressure. Controlling of the above parameters makes it possible to obtain suitable conditions for fragile biomass culture.
Keywords: bioreactor, wave-induced mixing, absorption rate, culture oxygenation




A. TRUSEK-HOŁOWNIA, J. CIERESZKO: Solids separation from balneological peat extracts
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 144-145
The research purpose was to select the method and conditions for effective separation of solid residues after extraction of balneological peat. Sedimentation and filtration processes were considered. The centrifugation at 6,000 rpm in 2 min was suggested as a method to achieve the almost homogeneous extract.
Keywords: balneological peat, alkaline extract purification, setting centrifuge, pressure filtration




S. WŁODARCZAK, M. OCHOWIAK, M. MATUSZAK: Evaluation of pressure-swirl atomizers and a quality of agro-technical treatment
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 146-147
Values of mean volume-surface diameter of droplet and interfacial surface for atomizers with one and two inlet ports are compared in the paper. The effect of flow rate and liquid viscosity is also presented. The value of mean droplet diameter decreases with the increase of flow rate and the decrease of liquid viscosity. The more favorable results (smaller mean droplet diameter and greater interfacial surface) were obtained for the atomizer equipped with one inlet port compared to atomizer with two inlet ports.
Keywords: droplet size, pressure-swirl atomizer, atomizer construction, liquid viscosity




M. WOJASIŃSKI, J. LATOCHA P. SOBIESZUK, T.  CIACH: Temperature influence on properties of  hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized in lecithin-based wet chemical precipitation
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 148-149
Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles preparation using lecithin-based wet chemical precipitation process in different temperatures in a semi­batch reactor was investigated. Particles characterized by spherical shape of about 100 nm size and surface zeta potential of about 0 mV were obtained. Precipitation temperature did not affect these properties of nanoparticles. Chemical analysis showed the influence of precipitation temperature on lecithin presence in precipitation products. The phenomenon of lecithin presence and concentration in hydroxyapatite nanoparticles will be investigated in further research.
Keywords: nanoparticles, hydroxyapatite, precipitation, lecithin




B. WRZESIŃSKA, R. KRZYWDA, T. WĄSOWSKI: Size distributions of droplets generated by a spraying device used in nitrogen oxides reduction technology
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 150-151
In selective non-catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides from combustion gases (SNCR) pneumatic sprayers, which provide the proper size and kinetic energy of the droplets, are used. Experimental studies have been conducted on spraying liquid through lances into the chamber simulating the space of heating boiler. Measurements of droplet diameters generated by pneumatic sprays were carried out and the characteristic parameters were calculated, i.e. Sauter average surface-volume droplets diameter and Rosin-Rammler distribution parameters. Examples of size distributions of droplets are shown.
Keywords: pneumatic sprayer, droplet diameter, Rosin-Rammler distribution




A. ZALEWSKA, I. GRUBECKI: Waterborne paints’  an alternative for the reduction of volatile organic compoundscoatings
Inż. Ap. Chem., 2017, 56, 4, 152-153
Thermomechanical properties of coatings made from acrylic paints with the addition of anionic surfactant and inorganic thickener were investigated. An experimental dependence of deformation vs. temperature was determined for systems containing a fixed amount of thickener and increasing amount of surfactant. The coating softening temperature and film deformation degree were determined. It was found that the increase of surfactant content in the system resulted in softening temperature lowering, and as a consequence, the reduction of coating deformation degree. A mathematical model describing the deformation as a function of temperature is proposed. This model fits quite well to the deformation experimental data.
Keywords: waterborne paints, lacquer coatings, softening temperature, varnish deformation degree