2013 Issue 6


Inż. Ap. Chem. (Chemical Engineering and Equipment) 2013, 52, issue 6

Table of Contents


→Full texts will be available on our Polish pages






Scientific papers:


A. BIŃ, P. MACHNIEWSKI: Modelling of ozonation process of organic contaminants
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 517-519
Kinetic model of benzaldehyde destruction by ozonation in aqueous solutions is presented in this paper. The model is based on mechanistic approach and enables one to estimate kinetic constants pertaining to benzaldehyde oxidation of greater generality then that previously determined using the apparent 2nd order reaction rate constants. The model was validated against the experimental data obtained in a stirred tank and co-current laboratory wetted-wall absorber in a range of pH (3.3÷6.5). The presented results indicate a good performance of the VOC removal process in such system. The model enables the process simulation in industrial conditions in order to optimize its efficiency in terms of ozone usage and apparatus utilization.
Keywords: ozone, volatile organic compounds, VOC, wetted-wall absorber




M. BŁASZCZYK, J. SĘK: Application of capillary model to the prediction
of saturation degree changes in a granular bed

Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 519-520
The object of this study was the investigation of washout process of highly viscous substances from the interior of porous structures with lower viscosity fluid under the influence of gravitational forces. The flows were analyzed in two beds of different granulation and at 4 different initial saturations of oily substances. In order to describe obtained results the modified Kozeny-Carman theory was used. It allowed the prediction of saturation degree changes in the bed on basis of flow hydrodynamics data only, without the need of checking the oil concentration in effluent stream from the bed. Such approach can simplify the procedures for determining changes in soil permeability as a function of their saturation with oily substances.
Keywords: porous media, washout, multiphase flows, surfactants




M. BOJARSKA, M. SZWAST, S. JAKUBIAK, J. MICHALSKI, L. GRADOŃ: Polymer membranes modified by zinc oxide − method of preparation
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 521-522
The preparation of modified microfiltration membrane with zinc oxide nanowires which prevents the adverse phenomena of biofouling is proposed in the paper. The Polymemtech polypropylene capillary membrane having an average pore diameter of about 0.3 μm, most often applied in microfiltration, was used. Growth of zinc oxide nanowires were carried out by hydro-thermal and chemical deposition methods. The second method seems to be the most promising. According to it, nucleation centers were seeded on the membrane surface and zinc oxide nanowires grow at temperature of 85°C for 40 min in a solution containing ammonia, zinc acetate and 2-ethanolamine. Even and dense packing of zinc oxide nanowires with length slightly less than 100 nm was obtained on membrane surface.
Keywords: membrane, modification, zinc oxide nanowires




J. BRYJAK, M. MATYSIK, W. KRAWCZYK: The p-anisidine removal using native and immobilized forms of laccase
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 523-524
Applications of laccase in specialty wastewater treatment were recently increasingly reported. In this work native and immobilized laccase was used for p-anisidine oxidation to form polymerized phenolic compounds that can be easily removed by sedimentation or filtration. It was shown that 10 % 2-propanol in the reaction mixture stabilized both forms of laccase. Additionally, it prevented strong sorption of oxidized products on the surface of selected enzyme-carrier preparation.
Keywords: anisidine, laccase, batch reactors, oxidation




of energy and exergy balances for the selected technological node

Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 525-526
Based on data collected in a currently working industrial process line, the results of energy and exergy balances of ammonium sulfate drying technological node are presented. The energy and exergy efficiency were compared. The obtained results can form a basis for innovative actions leading to energy consumption reduction in the analyzed technological node.
Keywords: exergy, balance, drying




K. CIESIELSKI, K. PRZYBYŁEK: Life Cycle Assessment of heating systems using primary and renewable heat sources
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 527-528
In this work a comparative analysis of different heating systems has been performed: classical gas boiler and two heat pumps systems. Analysis has been accomplished in economical and environmental (LCA) aspects. As far as the economic aspects are concerned, application of heat pumps has confirmed their advantages. However, general belief that they offer more ecological system is not fully justified. As it has been demonstrated in the paper, the environmental impact of heat pump heating system depends on the country of operation due to different dominant electricity generation technologies.
Keywords: LCA, Life Cycle Assessment, heating system, heat pumps




K. DĄBKOWSKA, M. PILAREK: Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose biomass from energetic willow (Salix viminalis L.)
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 529-530
Statistical analysis results of hydrolysis process of energetic willow (Salix viminalis L.) lignocellulose biomass (pre-treated with steam explosion) catalyzed by industrial enzyme preparations: Cellic® CTec2 and Cellic® HTec2, have been discussed. The negligible effect of Cellic® HTec2 on the hydrolysis efficiency has been demonstrated. Based on the Box-Behnken design, the optimum values of temperature (43.8 °C) and pH (5.55) for the studied reaction system have been estimated.
Keywords: lignocellulose biomass, enzymatic hydrolysis, energetic willow (Salix viminalis L.), 2nd generation biofuels




M. DZIACZEK, A. WIECZOREK: Investigation on purification efficiency of air stream contaminated with o-xylene in a column packed with the synthetic bed
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 531-532
Biofiltration process of air contaminated with o-xylene has been investigated in a trickled-bed column packed with fire clay. The superficial gas velocity in the column ranged from 0.84 to 1.69 cm·s-1, while the pollutant concentration varied between 234 and 432 mg·m-3. The 100% removal efficiency of has been achieved on 23rd day of the process for loading rate of 6.93 g·m-3·h-1. A maximum rate of biodegradation achieved 22.5 g·m-3·h-1
at the 100% filtration efficiency. These results proved the usefulness of fireclay in o-xylene removal from contaminated air emissions.
Keywords: biofiltration, tricled-bed column, fire clay, o-xylene




M. FRIEDRICH: Searching for a correlation between odour of waste gases from wastewater treatment plant and a concentration of individual pollutants
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 533-534
Pollutants, which could be an indicator in the design, choosing and monitoring of odour abatement installation of waste gases from wastewater treatment plants were searched. Crude waste gas and gas purified by the plasma-catalytic system were analyzed using the olfactometric and GC-MS methods. A correlation between odour concentration and concentration of individual pollutants was not found. A thesis that dimethyl disufide could be the indicator was put forward but it should be confirmed by further studies.
Keywords: odour indicator, odour abatement, odour annoyance, wastewater treatment plant




D. GŁĄBAŁA, J. SĘK: Investigation of the DAF method influence on phases’ separation process in emulsions
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 535-536
This paper presents the research and comparison of processes: self de-emulsification of O/W emulsion systems and de-emulsification using forced air bubbles dissolved in emulsion (DAF). The effect of concentration of deemulsifier added to emulsion was also tested. Oil-in-water emulsion of 5% concentration was tested. Such concentration is used in practice (e.g. dairy industry) and in sewage treatment plants. The camera Turbiscan Lab was used to observe the emulsion de-lamination. The DAF flotation accelerates the separation process in emulsion, therefore enabling one to recover more oil than in traditional de-emulsification.
Keywords: emulsions, de-emulsification, nephelometry, flotation




A. KAMIŃSKA-PĘKALA, W. CIESIELCZYK: Efficient fluidization of materials from
the group D of Geldart’s classification

Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 537-538
The paper deals with an original design solution of gas distributor for efficient fluidization of maple, pine and oak chips. Fluidization curves of tested materials were prepared and process conditions of efficient fluidization of materials belonging to the group D of Geldart’s classification were determined.
Keywords: fluidization, Geldart’s classification, biomass




D. KONOPACKA-ŁYSKAWA: Precipitation of spherical calcium carbonate particles
in the gas-liquid system

Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 539-540
Calcium carbonate was precipitated during carbonation of solution containing CaCl2 and triethanolamine (TEA). Calcite in a form of spherical particles with a small amount of cubic crystals having the average diameter of about 17 μm was obtained for TEA concentration from 0.1 to 0.25 mol/dm3. A mixture of calcite and vaterite was formed when the concentration of TEA was 0.3 mol/dm3. Polyhedral calcite particles with the diameter of 6 μm were obtained in TEA solution previously saturated with CO2 .
Keywords: precipitation, calcium carbonate, particle morphology




M. LEMANOWICZ, G. DZIDO, A. GIERCZYCKI, M. WITKOWSKI, M. DRZAZGA: Numerical simulation of nanofluid flow in a small diameter pipe
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 541-542                     Get the full text (in English)
The research concerning nanofluid pressure drop during flow through a small diameter pipe is presented. Experimental results are compared with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The flow of copper nanoparticles suspended in water through the cylindrical tube of 12 mm diameter was investigated. In simulations single-phase as well as multiphase approaches were employed. It was proven that both ways of simulations gave similar results.
Keywords: nanofluids, pressure drop, CFD




W. LUDWIG, W. SAWIŃSKI: CFD modeling of a jet pump mixer
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 543-544
The aim of this work was to develop and verify a CFD model describing the jet pump mixer. The model verification was carried out on basis of our earlier experimental investigations. This model enables the calculation of velocity and pressure fields inside the apparatus. Therefore, one can examine the influence of hydrodynamic and constructional variables on mixing process. In the future this model should be used for the optimization of jet pump mixer for crude oil desalination.
Keywords: CFD, jet pump mixer, hydrodynamics




H. MURASIEWICZ, Z. JAWORSKI, P. BANIUKIEWICZ: Spectral analysis and wavelet transform of velocity-time data for turbulent flow analysis in a Kenics static mixer
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 545-547
Results of experimental studies of turbulent fluid flow in a Kenics mixer conducted by means of LDA are presented in the paper. The aim of this study was to describe a turbulent flow structure with the aid of mathematical methods such as spectral analysis and wavelet transform. It was found that the increase of Reynolds number caused a systematic growth of average energy density E(f). Therefore, a level of flow fluctuations should behave similarly. The comparative analysis of power spectra obtained by means of the Fourier and wavelet analyses gave satisfying results. The fluctuations in the wavelet power spectra are smoothed out comparing to those obtained from the Fourier transform. The wavelet transform can be successfully applied in turbulent flow analysis.
Keywords: LDA, turbulent flow, static mixer, wavelet and spectral analyses




K. NAWROTEK, Z. MODRZEJEWSKA, R. ZARZYCKI: Active agent release from hydrogels – diffusion and diffusion-desorption models
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 548-549
The paper presents two models of release of active agents from hydrogels: the known diffusion model and a developed new diffusion-desorption model. The later model takes into account desorption processes from the surface of solid phase matrix and diffusion processes taking place in the matrix pores. The release kinetics is described by means of the diffusion coefficient of active agent in liquid filling the pores, and the mass transfer coefficient which corresponds to the desorption rate of active ingredient from the surface of pores. An exemplary simulation for bovine serum albumin (BSA) was performed in MATLAB using the fi nite differences method.
Keywords: mathematical modelling, diffusion, adsorption, hydrogel




A. PENCONEK, M. LASOTA, A. MOSKAL: Research on diffusion of soot aggregates (DEP) in a mucus layer
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 550-551
Research was focused on a protective role of mucus in relation to carbon black particles. The diffusion coefficient for three types of carbon black aggregates through a layer of artificial mucus was determined. Diesel exhaust particles were obtained from the combustion of various fuels in a diesel oil engine. They were fractal-like structures with dimensions of 15 and 17 and diameters of 30, 60 and 117 nm. The study showed that, regardless of a type of DEP aggregates, mucus slowed their transport in degree depending on their size and shape.
Keywords: diesel, DEP, diffusion, mucus




M. POGORZELSKI, Z. ZANDER, L. ZANDER, M. WRÓTNIAK: Research on drying kinetics of plant material using the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) method
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 552-553
An experimental system has been assembled for utilization of so-called ionic wind for the enhancement of convective drying process. The samples of several plant materials were dehydrated at average air velocity of 0.1 m·s-1 and ambient temperature in the electric field of strength equal to 328÷527 kV·m-1, and in the regular convective drying performed as a reference process. The water evaporation rates within the first period of drying have been assessed. It was stated that the application of electric field may accelerate dehydration rate by 1.6÷4.5 times in relation to the traditional convective process.
Keywords: drying kinetics, electric field, electrohydrodynamic method, EHD




M. PRZYWARA, J. OLIWA, I. OPALIŃSKI: Influence of moisture content on flowability of alternative solid biofuels. Part 1. Forest and AGRO biomass
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 554-555
Effect of moisture content on solid biomass mechanical and rheological properties important for storage and process conditions was examined. Mechanical properties were measured using Jenike’s shear tester. A new technique of powder rheometer was applied for rheological measurements. It was stated that mechanical properties of biomass worsened and its strength increased with the increase of moisture content. On the other hand, the increase of moisture content improved biomass rheological properties via increasing of its flowability.
Keywords: biomass, Jenike’s shear cell, powder rheometer




S. RÓŻAŃSKA: Rheological properties of aqueous solutions
of carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt in the extensional flow

Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 557-558
The aim of this work was to study rheological properties of aqueous solutions of carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt in the extensional flow. The influence of mean molecular weight on extensional viscosity and shear viscosity is qualitatively similar to polymers having two different molar masses. However, differences in values of Tr ratio were indicated, i.e. for Na-CMC 700 are significantly higher than for Na-CMC 250 , reaching 77 and 23, respectively.
Keywords: extensional viscosity, Trouton ratio, viscoelasticity




J. RÓŻAŃSKI: Rheological properties of aqueous solutions of mixtures consisting of nonionic and amphoteric surfactants
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 559-560
Rheological properties of aqueous micellar solutions of two surfactant mixtures: cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) amphoteric surfactant and diethanolamide (DEA) coco fatty acid nonionic surfactant were studied. It was demonstrated that rheological properties of mixtures used were strongly dependent on the weight ratio of CAPB/DEA. The measurements of pressure drop of surfactant mixtures showed that they had the drag reduction ability during turbulent flow.
Keywords: surfactants, rheology, drag reduction




J. STRASZKO, W. PARUS, W. PATERKOWSKI: Reaction kinetics of organic admixtures’ combustion over low-temperature catalysts
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 561-562
Research results dealing with combustion kinetics of model organic compounds over low-temperature metal oxides catalysts comprising MnO2 – CuO, MnO2 – Fe2 O3 and MnO2 – Fe2O3 – CuO systems are presented. A method of catalysts preparation is described. The kinetics studies were carried out using a flow-type apparatus with a tubular micro-reactor. It was demonstrated that the combustion of organic admixtures over low-temperature catalysts in the kinetic region proceeded according to the first-order reaction kinetics. The coefficients A and E of the Arrhenius equation for the considered systems were determined.
Keywords: catalytic combustion, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), reaction kinetics




W. SUCHECKI, S. ALABRUDZIŃSKI: Experimental method for measurements
of cavitating tip vortex geometry and surrounding liquid velocity field

Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 563-565
The paper presents the experimental method for measurements of cavitating tip vortex generated by the hydrofoil model at high relative velocities. The experimental procedure included the image acquisition of cavitating tip vortex geometry and DPIV measurements of surrounding liquid velocity field. The measuring system included the New Wave 120XT-15 Hz laser, dual-Nd: YAG laser and the camera pco.1200hs with Synchronizer ILA. The so-called calibration mask used during experiments made it possible to remove the image distortion, however, did not allow for the clear identification of the measurement area position with respect to canal walls. The usefulness of applied methods in the study of flow visualization in the presence of cavitation was demonstrated.
Keywords: cavitation, flow visualisation, DPIV method




W. SZAFERSKI, P. T. MITKOWSKI, A. KONDRAS: Suspension preparation with modified HE-3X agitator
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 566-567
Test results of a modified HE-3X agitator and its comparison with HE-3 agitator and Rushton turbine are presented in the paper. Experiments were carried out using systems consisting of polyethylene solid granules and either distilled water or aqueous solutions of arabic gum. An influence of introduced modifications in the agitator design on the minimum rotation frequency of the agitator needed to produce a complete suspension is shown. Energy inputs for tested agitators valid in the range of Re ∈ (20 000; 200 000) and for equivalent diameter of particles equal to 3.8 mm are presented.
Keywords: HE-3 agitator, HE-3X agitator, power consumption, power requirement




R. SZAFRAN, T. TOMCZAK: Application of lattice-Boltzmann method in microflow simulation in a lab-on-a-chip microchannels’ systems
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 568-569
Experimental and computer simulation results using the lattice-Boltzmann method for fluid flows in microchannels of the lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device are presented in the paper. LBM simulations were performed for 2D geometry (2DQ9 model), allowing the shortening of simulation time but significantly increasing the calculation error. The calculation error of fluid mean velocity ranged from 15 to over 100 %.
Keywords: numerical modeling, microflows, lab-on-a-chip, lattice-Boltzmann, DFD




L. RUCZYŃSKI, J. STUCZYŃSKI, A. SŁAWATYCKI, W. CHRUPAŁA: Phosgenation reaction of TDA in the gas phase in a flow reactor of special design

Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 570-571
The theoretical and experimental studies on phosgenation process of TDA in the gas phase are presented in the paper. The reaction takes place in the instantaneous reaction regime, so it is very important to well mix the reactants. On the other hand, the circulation leading to by-products formation cannot be allowed. The issue was solved by the proper dosing of reactants. The appropriate criterion numbers Reλ and Ct , (being an innovative solution) were used to determine the optimal process conditions.
Keywords: toluenediamine (TDA), phosgenation in the gaseous phase, backmixing, toluene diisocyanate (TDI)




J. SZOPLIK: Application of Artificial Neural Networks for load prediction in a gas pipeline network
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 572-574
Application of Artificial Neural Network for load prediction in a gas pipeline network in an exemplary Poland city taking into account weather and calendar factors is proposed in the paper. Based on real data, a number of neural networks with a various number of neurons in hidden layer were trained. The best neural network structure depending on a number of initial data sets was proposed. The obtained network models can be successfully applied in practice.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, forecasting, load of gas pipeline net-




M. SZWAST, Z. SZWAST: Mathematical modeling of gas mixtures separation using flat dense polymeric membranes
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 575-576
The paper presents the authors’ own mathematical model of gas separation using a flat dense polymeric membrane. The model describes a separation process of two gaseous components with the presence of third gaseous component as a receiver on the other side of the membrane. Differential equations describing this process as well as some exemplary numerical calculation for the separation of CH4 and CO2 mixture (biogas enrichment) using a membrane made of PDMS are presented in the paper.
Keywords: membranes, gas separation, mathematical modeling




R. ŚLĘZAK, L. KRZYSTEK, S. LEDAKOWICZ: Effect of aeration time on aerobic stabilization of landfill – experimental simulation in lysimeters
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 577-578
The aim of this study was to carry out an experimental aerobic landfill simulation in lysimeters in which wastes were aerated for different time periods. Waste stabilization was determined on basis of changes in the respiratory quotient (RQ) and respiration index (AT4). Based on the analyses of waste stabilization indices it was found that RQ showed waste stabilization after 144 days of aeration, while AT4 after 196 days of aeration.
Keywords: landfill, aeration, stabilization, waste




B. TAL-FIGIEL, W. FIGIEL, M. KWIECIEŃ: Oscillatory tests of medical gel systems
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 579-580
Hydrogels and oleogels replace traditional bases and are used in the recipe because of the application easiness and not leaving greasy marks on the skin as opposed to standard vehicles. Rheological measurements are the only way of testing the quality and stability of gel systems. Hydrogels prepared from Carbopol in the concentration range from 0.2 to 2 % and oleogels using Cab-O-Sil were tested. Rheological tests carried out at temperatures of 25 °C and 32 °C represented mostly oscillatory tests, identification of flow curve and thixotropy of gel systems. The rotational rheometer Haake RS75 with a cone-plate measurement system was used.
Keywords: oscillation, rheology, hydrogels, oleogels




G. WAŁOWSKI, G. FILIPCZAK: Assessment of hydrodynamics of gas flow through gap-porous material
Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 581-582
Evaluation of selected criteria related to the hydrodynamics of gas flow through fractured-porous materials is presented in the paper. Three types of materials: melted gangue, coke and char were tested. Measurements results with respect to permeability of these materials and pressure drop are shown. The pressure drop change in microchannels of this type of porous materials was described using the numerical method of flow modeling.
Keywords: porous material, gas flow, numerical modeling




B. ZAKRZEWSKA, Z. JAWORSKI: Simulation of a power system equipped with
the SOFC stack using Aspen Plus software

Inż. Ap. Chem. 2013, 52, 6, 583-585
A 100 W power system based on a micro-tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack was investigated. The commercially available Aspen Plus process simulator was chosen for modelling and parametric analysis of the system.The effects of reforming with water steam and of catalytic combustion on the final fuel consumption were analysed along with the influence of air flow rate on system cooling.
Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, SOFC, Aspen Plus, system simulations, methane reforming